- The expansion of globalization has brought about both new opportunities and problems for maintaining global peace and security.
- There is a higher chance of peace and stability as more nations adopt democratic forms of government and respect for human rights.
- Real security cannot be offered solely on a national level in today’s globalizing globe.
Globalized security and peacebuilding have gained fresh significance in the international sphere as a result of our increasingly interconnected society.
It has emerged as an essential element of international relations as a result of the growth of democracy and human rights, the threat posed by transnational crimes, and the results of climate change.
The expansion of globalization has brought about both new opportunities and problems for maintaining global peace and security.
Two crucial international relations aspects that have received much attention recently are globalized security and peacekeeping.
The main priority on the international agenda is security.
These “problems without passports,” must be viewed as shared dangers and weaknesses by all states if global security is to be built.
According to Prof. Abu Bakarr Bah, who served as the host of the June 15 special virtual webinar on globalized security and peacebuilding, there is a need for international cooperation because rifts and differences have grown in the twenty-first century.
Prof. Bah is a Presidential Research Professor of Sociology at Northern Illinois University (USA), and founding Executive Director of the Institute for Research and Policy Integration in Africa (IRPIA).
A strong and comprehensive strategy must include measures to stop environmental deterioration, end poverty, and stop the spread of social inequality and extremism in order to create a more secure world.
The late Kofi Annan, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations, said, “We now see, with chilling clarity, that a world where millions of people endure brutal oppression and extreme misery will never be fully secure, even for its most privileged inhabitants.”
Interdependence for security
The growing interconnection of the world through trade, technology, and communication is one of the main forces behind the establishment of globalized security and peace.
Countries now depend increasingly on one another for political stability and economic prosperity at the advent of globalization.
Conflicts can, therefore, easily move from one region to another, emphasizing the value of international collaboration in fostering peace and security.
The growth of democracy and human rights significantly influences worldwide security and peacebuilding.
There is a higher chance of peace and stability as more nations adopt democratic forms of government and respect for human rights.
Democracies are more likely to coexist peacefully and less likely to engage in conflict.
Transnational crimes and terrorism seriously threaten globalized security and peacebuilding.
Natural disasters, inequality, poverty, the proliferation of lethal weaponry, international crime, ecological collapse, newly emerging and resurgent communicable diseases, and the acrimonious fight for resources and land all contribute to terrorism and the dangerous responses to them.
It is difficult to resist these threats using conventional methods because improvements in communication and transportation technologies have made it simpler for terrorist organizations and criminal gangs to operate across international boundaries.
Global insecurity is also a result of these issues, as well as climate change and its side effects, including economic instability and internal migration.
Extreme weather events can cause crop failures, water shortages, and other economic and social disruptions that can result in conflict and bloodshed when they grow more regular and intense.
“We’ve lost about 90% of the water, and the intercommunity in the Sahara Region is fighting for the arable land. Different groups are trying to achieve their own objectives.
Even though there is a bit of hesitance, climate change is a contributing factor to conflicts,” Michael Nwankpa commented on the webinar’s panel discussion.
These and other drivers of globalized security and peacebuilding highlight the significance of international cooperation and the requirement for ongoing efforts to promote security and peace on a global scale.
While there are numerous factors that contribute to globalized security and peacebuilding, there are also considerable obstacles that must be faced in order to preserve a long-lasting, peaceful, and stable worldwide system.
Some nations oppose any efforts to encourage international collaboration because they see globalization as a danger to their national identities and customs.
Coordinating international efforts to solve problems like poverty, inequality, and climate change may be challenging in the face of such resistance.
The construction of security and peace in a globalized world is also hampered by cultural and religious diversity.
Building trust and cooperation amongst nations can be challenging because of various cultural standards and religious convictions that might result in misunderstandings and disputes.
The problem of territorial sovereignty presents another difficulty in achieving peace and security on a global scale.
Countries have a stake in preserving their territorial sovereignty, which can occasionally result in confrontations with other nations or with international organizations working to advance stability and peace.
In order to control profitable resources, major powers have frequently intervened in resource-rich nations throughout history.
Somalia is described as a failed state that partially dissolved due to militarization supported initially by the Soviet Union and, subsequently, the United States, which resulted in a disastrous war with Ethiopia in the late 1970s and left the nation overrun with weaponry.
This blatant disregard for the needs of citizens opened the door for a popular uprising, the effects of which are still visible today, and residents have not entirely recovered.
Resources have been a significant contributor to global insecurity, particularly in some African nations.
Resources in terms of people, money, and technology are essential for effective peacebuilding and conflict resolution.
The number of disputes and issues that need to be addressed in some circumstances may make such resources sparse or insufficient.
Armed conflict is not the only form that insecurity can take, and guns do not always provide security.
Achieving real security
Despite the numerous problems that must be solved, all of these difficulties highlight the significance of continuing international cooperation in advancing globalized security and peacebuilding.
Real security cannot be offered solely on a national level in today’s globalizing globe.
To address the many of transboundary concerns successfully, a multilateral and even global strategy is required.
International organizations are crucial in advancing international security and fostering peace.
The United Nations, the African Union, the European Union, and the Arab League are a few examples of these organizations.
These organizations give nations a forum to coordinate their initiatives to advance world peace and security.
Particularly important in fostering stability and averting crises has been the United Nations.
It has established a number of organizations that work to avoid violence and settle differences, including the Security Council and the International Court of Justice.
Even though it has mainly failed owing to a lack of an international mandate, the UN also conducts peacebuilding missions in regions that are experiencing war, such as Somalia, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
“As we’ve seen in international conflict the moment we lack international mandate, a consensus between the international powers to allow international organization to intervene then we are going to run into problems especially in trying to resolve the conflict and we’ve seen this even in Sudan,” commented Michael Nwankpa.
Nwankpa is a co-author of the seminal work on Boko Haram titled The Boko Haram Reader: From Nigerian Preachers to the Islamic State, and a lecturer at Unicaf University, and the Founding Director and Director of Research at the Centre for African Conflict and Development, London, United Kingdom.
The promotion of peace and security has also been a priority for regional organizations like the Africa Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).
For instance, IGAD has been crucial in mediating disputes in the Horn of Africa and is currently engaged in efforts to end the ongoing hostilities in conflict-ridden Sudan.
Kenya is one of the organization’s eight regional members.
Through a number of measures, the group seeks to advance regional economic growth, peace, and security.
Due to their approaches to conflict resolution, which prioritized mediation over military action, the African Union and IGAD have both attained a certain level of peace stability.
While these approaches have not always been fully successful, with continued funding, they can significantly increase the likelihood of restoring peace to belligerents.
The promotion of peacebuilding and globalized security depends heavily on individual governments.
The policies from foreign nations can significantly impact the international security environment.
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Counties can support efforts to protect the peace, give aid to nations in need, and use diplomatic channels to encourage communication and collaboration between potential governments.